Obesity starts by consuming more calories than an individual’s needs based on lifestyle and characteristics (age, gender, job, pregnancy status, exercising etc.). Since these calories are stored as fat in the body, the individual experiences weight gain and it is a dangerous disease that can lead to death and bring other diseases as well. Individuals with obesity can have various comorbid diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, respiratory disorders, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, cholesterol and lipid elevation, sleep apnoea, sleep disorders, cerebral haemorrhage, stroke, breast, colon and prostate cancer, depression and social adjustment problems.
#Bariatric Surgery in Turkey
Obesity is measured by body mass index (BMI) that is commonly used and recommended by the WHO (World Health Organisation). BMI is calculated by dividing the weight in kg by the square of height in m2. Individuals with 30 or above BMI are defined as obese.
The first treatment of obese patients is medical treatment. These are:
- Behavioural change (psychologic counselling) treatment.
If the above methods do not help with permanent weight loss, other obesity treatments are tried.
Technically, obesity treatment is divided into two.
- Endoscopic Methods (Non-Surgical)
- Laparoscopic (Bariatric Surgery Methods)
The fastest and most permanent solutions in treatment are achieved with bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is a surgical intervention to the digestive system to help individuals to lose weight. Bariatric surgery at the same time is an operation that includes metabolic surgery for type-2 diabetes treatment.
Bariatric surgery is covered under 3 main titles.
- Restrictive (volume decreasing) surgeries
- Malabsorptive (absorption decreasing) surgeries
- Combined surgeries
When an individual decides to have bariatric surgery, s/he must meet certain criteria. These are:
- The patient must have a body mass index higher than 40 or comorbid diseases with a body mass index between 35-40 (high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnoea, joint ailments, reflux disease, etc.).
- If the BMI of the patient fits these conditions, diet history is considered. The patient must experience obesity for at least 3 years and no change despite 1-year medication, diet and psychological counselling. Also, the weight problem must be related to hormones.
- The patient should be between 18-65 years old. But patients below 18 and above 65 can be evaluated depending on the patient’s condition.
- The individual must not have addictions such as alcohol or drug addiction.
- The patient must have the psychological well-being to take the surgical risks and to follow the eating and follow-up conditions after the surgery.
- The patient must not have endocrinologic (hormonal) diseases.
- If the patient is planning to get pregnant, it is advised to delay it at least 24 months.
- For BMI (body mass index) between 30-35, type-2 diabetes patients that fail to control blood sugar level with medical treatment might have the surgery.
In the individuals fit these criteria, bariatric surgery is a suitable treatment option.
Bariatric surgery is the general name given to weight-loss surgeries. These surgical methods are performed by general surgery surgeons. But being a general surgery surgeon is not enough to perform these operations. Bariatric surgery cannot be performed in every medical school and hospital. Therefore, the chances for success for doctors without experience and who only performed surgery during a few day courses is low. Also, undesired consequences are unavoidable. A reliable health clinic and expert, experienced bariatric surgeons increases the chance for success and minimises the complication risks. Therefore, individuals who want to have this surgery to have a healthy and quality life should research their doctors and health clinics very well. In this sense, our country has expert doctors and these doctors perform successful surgeries. İstanbul, Bodrum is one of the top cities with successful bariatric surgeries and preferred by obese patients for their surgeries.